General information about:
Official Name : Republic of Burundi
Government : Presidential Republic
Capital City : Bujumbura
Area : 27.830 km2
Population : 9.648 million (est 2016, IMF)
National Anthem : Burundi Bwacu
Religion : Catholic 62,1%, Protestant 23,9%, Moslem 2,5%, others 3,6%, unspecified 7,9%
Language : Kirundi, French, Swahili
Currency : Burundian Franc (BIF) 1 US$ = 1672 BIF
National Day : 1 July (independence day)
Ethnic group : Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy), Europeans, South Asian 1%
President : Pierre Nkurunziza (since 2005)
Vice President I : Gaston Sindimwo
Vice President II : Joseph Butore
Minister of Foreign Affairs : Alain Aime Nyamitwe
GDP : 2,772 billion (est 2016, IMF)
GDP per capita : 287,286 (est 2016, IMF)
Major export commodity : Coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava, beef, milk, hides
Major import commodity : Capital goods, petroleum products and foodstuffs
Membership in International Organization : ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
The national flag of Burundi was adopted on 28 June 1967 after the country's independence from Belgium on 1 July 1962. It consists of a white saltire which divides the field into alternating red and green areas. The center of the saltire merges into a white disk, on which there are three red solid six-pointed stars outlined in green. White color of the cross represents peace, green represents the nation's hopes placed on future development and red symbolizes the suffering of the nation during its freedom struggle. The three stars in triangular configuration stand for the three major ethnic groups of Burundi: the Hutu, the Twa and the Tutsi. The three stars also stand for the three elements of the national motto: Unité, Travail, Progrès ("Unity, Work and Progress"), which can be seen on the coat of arms of Burundi. They also represent the loyalty that the citizens of the nations have pledged to their God, king and country.
Burundi name was derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi. Burundi was led by a Tutsi King until Germany established armed forces in Rwanda and Burundi at the end of 19th century. After being defeated in World War I, Germany was forced to give the control of Burundi to Belgium. On October 20, 1924, the land, which consisted of modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, became a Belgian League of Nations mandate territory. It was considered part of the Belgian colonial empire, and was known as Ruanda-Urundi.
Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was classified as a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority. On January 20, 1959, Burundi's ruler requested from the Belgian Minister of Colonies, a separation of Burundi and Rwanda. On July 1, 1962, Burundi claimed its independence. In the last past years, the political landscape of Burundi has been dominated by civil war which broke out in 1993, the long peace process and the democratic transition. The current President, Pierre Nkurunziza is the first President to be elected democratically since the beginning of the civil war.
Burundi is located in the African continent and lies between latitudes 3.2836° South and 29.8293° East. It is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the East African Rift. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is 1,707 m (5,600 ft), with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 2,685 m (8,810 ft), lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. Lake Victoria is an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River. Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner.
Burundi's lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of rain forest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Ruvubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations.
Burundi in general has a tropical highland climate, with a considerable daily temperature range in many areas. Temperature also varies considerably from one region to another, chiefly as a result of differences in altitude. The central plateau enjoys pleasantly cool weather, with an average temperature of 20° C (68° F). The area around Lake Tanganyika is warmer, averaging 23° C (73° F); the highest mountain areas are cooler, averaging 16° C (60° F). Bujumbura's average annual temperature is 23° C (73° F). Rain is irregular, falling most heavily in the northwest. Dry seasons vary in length, and there are sometimes long periods of drought. However, four seasons can be distinguished: the long dry season (June–August), the short wet season (September–November), the short dry season (December–January), and the long wet season (February–May). Most of Burundi receives between 130 and 160 cm (51–63 in) of rainfall a year. The Ruzizi Plain and the northeast receive between 75 and 100 cm (30–40 in).
Burundi is bordered by Rwanda in the north, Democratic Republic Congo in the west and Tanzania in the east. The country is divided into 17 provinces and 117 communes. The 17 provinces are Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga,Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi.
Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) has 118 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. The Senate (Sénat) has 49 members, elected for a five-year term by electoral colleges of communal councilors. Extra seats in both chambers can be added to ensure that ethnic and gender quotas are met.
President of Burundi is both head of state and head of government. The president is elected by the people. He nominates two vice-presidents, and with the Council of Ministers, forms the executive branch.
Burundi judiciary comprises of Supreme Court, Tribunals of First Instance and Constitutional Courts. The judicial system in Burundi is based on the French and German customary law.
Burundi Supreme Court consists of nine members including the president. Supreme Court is divided into three chambers, namely, administrative chamber, judicial chamber and chamber of cassation. High Court is responsible for sentencing the Prime Minister or the President of Burundi for any misconduct during their tenure.
2. Political party
Burundi adopts multiparty system. List of political party in Burundi as follows:
Front for Democracy in Burundi (Frodebu)
National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD – FDD
Union for National Progress (Uprona)
National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD)
National Resistence Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizens (MRC – Rurenzangemero)
Party for National Redress (Parena)
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural; agriculture accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi's export earnings rest primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices.
Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for just over 30% of the GDP. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture. The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports. Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum. Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap.
The level of current economic trade between the two countries is considerably small. However there is potential to improve the trade volume by promotion of Indonesian product top Burundi's market. Indonesian products which penetrate Burundi market among others are bottle drink, paper product, soap and mosquito repellent lotion.
3. Social and Culture
The bilateral relations in socio-cultural spheres are focused in the sector of capacity building and education. Indonesian government contributes in improving Burundi's capacity in health sector by providing training in family planning. Indonesia also play active role in providing training for Burundian in different other sectors, especially under the South-South Cooperation program. Every year, the Indonesian government also offers Dharmasiswa and Developing Countries Partnership Program (KNB) scholarship for Burundi students to participate.